Linear Equations in two Variables

Linear Equations in two Variables

Linear Equations in two Variables

Linear equation in two variables x and y is an equation of the form ax + by + c = 0, where ab and c are real numbers and both a and b are not equal to 0 at a time.

Examples of linear equation in two variables are:

2x + 3y = 6,  x + 4y = 7

These equation can also written in the form

2x + 3y – 6 = 0,  x + 4y – 7 = 0 respectively.


Example 1: Write each of the following equation in the form of ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case:

(i)      3x + y = 7
(ii)     2y – 4 = x

Solution: 

(i)    3x + y = 7 can be written as 3x + y – 7 = 0
               Here, a = 3, b = 1 and c = -7
(ii)   2y – 4 = x can be written as 2y – 4 – x = 0  or  -x + 2y – 4 = 0
 Here, a = -1, b = 2 and c = -4


Note: Equations of the type ax + b = 0 are also examples of linear equations in two variables because they can be expressed as ax + 0.y + b = 0. For example 4 - 5x = 0 can be written as -5x + 0.y + 4 = 0

Solving Linear Equations

Solving linear a equation ax + by + c = 0 is to find the points (x, y) or pair of values of x and y which satisfy the given linear equation. For example the point (2, 3) is the solution of the linear equation 2x + 3y – 13 = 0. Because for the value of x = 2 and y = 3 satisfy the equation 2x + 3y – 13 = 0,

            i.e        2x2 + 3x3 – 13 = 0
   or,        4 + 9 – 13 = 0
   or,        13 – 13 = 0
   or,        0 = 0 (True)

Note:  
-     A linear equation has infinitely many solutions.
-     Linear equation always represent a straight line joining those points in graph.


Example 2: Find any two solutions of the given linear equations:
(i)      3x+4y=10
(ii)     y-4=3x

Solution: 
(i)          Here,
3x + 4y = 10
or, 3x = 10 – 4y
or, x = (10 – 4y)/3

x
2
-2
y
1
4

The two solution are (2, 1) and (-2, 4)

(ii)         Here,
y – 4 = 3x
or, y = 3x + 4

x
1
-1
y
7
1

The two solution are (1, 7) and (-1, 1)


Graphing Linear Equations

A linear equation represents a straight line in the graph. Graphing linear equation is the plotting of the solution points of the equation and joining straight line in the graph.

Some of special cases:
(i)      x=0 is the equation of y-axis and y=0 is the equation of the x-axis.
(ii)    The graph of x=a is a straight line parallel to y-axis.
(iii)   The graph of y=b is a straight line parallel to x-axis.
(iv)   The graph of the equation of the form y=mx is a line which always passes through the origin.


Example 3: Draw the graph of x + y = 7.

Solution: Here,
                                    x + y = 7
                        or,        x = 7 – y

x
4
3
y
3
4
           
 The two solution of the given equation are (4, 3) and (3, 4). Now, plotting these two points in a graph, and joining a straight line we get as given below,
Graph: x + y = 7



Example 4: Draw the graph of 2x – y = 1.

Solution: Here,
                                    2x – y = 1
                        or,        2x = 1 + y
                        or,        x = (1 + y)/2

x
1
2
y
1
3

 The two solution of the given equation are (1, 1) and (2, 3). Now, plotting these two points in a graph, and joining a straight line we get as given below,
Graph of linear equation 2x – y = 1



Example 5: Draw the graph of 2x + 3y = 6.

Solution: Here,
                                    2x + 3y = 6
                        or,        2x = 6 – 3y
                        or,        x = (6 – 3y)/2

x
3
0
y
0
2

 The two solution of the given equation are (3, 0) and (0, 2). Now, plotting these two points in a graph, and joining a straight line we get as given below,
Graph: 2x + 3y = 6


You can comment your questions or problems regarding the linear equations here.

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